Terça-feira, 5 de Outubro de 2010

Fotografia - Lisbon,The City Time

 

  

Video and photography by José Carvalho

 

Lisbon (Portuguese: Lisboa; Portuguese pronunciation: [liʒˈboɐ]) is the capital and largest city of Portugal, with a population of 479,884 within its administrative limits[1] on a land area of 84.8 km2 (33 sq mi). The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 2.4 million[2][3] on a area of 958 km2 (370 sq mi),[2] it is the 12th most populous urban area in the European Union. About 2,831,000[4][5] people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (which represents approximately 27% of the population of the country) and 3.34 million people live in the broader agglomeration of Lisbon Metropolitan Region (includes cities ranging from Leiria to Setúbal).[6] Lisbon is the westernmost large city located in Europe, as well as its westernmost capital city. It lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean and the Tagus River, about 320 km (198.84 mi) northwest of Cape Spartel in Africa.

Lisbon is recognised as an alpha city because of its importance in finance, commerce, media, entertainment, arts, international trade, education, and tourism.[7][8] It is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial centre and the largest/second largest container port in the "Europe's Atlantic coast",[9] Lisbon International Airport serves about 13 million passengers per year, motorway network and hub of high-speed rail (Alfa Pendular) linking main cities in Portugal, and in 2013 will have a rail's high-speed connection to Spain.[10] Lisbon is the 25th most livable city in the World according to lifestyle magazine Monocle.[11] The city is the sixth-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Rome, Barcelona, Madrid, Athens, and Milan, with about two million tourists a year.[12] The Lisbon region is the wealthiest region in Portugal, GDP PPP per capita is 26,100 euros (it is higher results of 4.7% from the average European Union's GDP PPP per capita). It is the tenth richest metropolitan area by GDP on the continent amounting to 98 billion euros and thus €34,850 per capita.[13] This is 40% higher than the average European Union's GDP per capita. The city occupies 32nd place of highest gross earnings in the world.[14] Most of the headquarters of multinationals in the country are located in the Lisbon area and it is the ninth city in the world in terms of quantity of international conferences.[15] It is also the political centre of the country, as seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. The seat of the district of Lisbon and the centre of the Lisbon region.

Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world. Julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the fifth century, it was captured by the Moors in the eighth century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city for the Christians and since then it has been a major political, economic, and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed officially – by statute or in written form. Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal.

Lisbon hosts two agencies of the European Union, namely, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA). The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) is also headquartered in Lisbon.

Lisbon has two sites listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site: Belém Tower and Jerónimos Monastery. Furthermore, in 1994, Lisbon was the European Capital of Culture and in 1998 organized an Expo '98 (1998 Lisbon World Exposition).

The city is candidate for the 2020 Summer Olympics.

Lisbon enjoys a Subtropical-Mediterranean climate. Among all the metropolises in Europe, it has the warmest winters, with average temperatures above 15.2 °C (59.4 °F) during the day and 8.9 °C (48.0 °F) at night in the period from December to February. The typical summer's season lasts about sixth months, from May to October, although also in November, March and April sometimes there are temperature above 20 °C (68.0 °F).

Neolithic era to the Roman Empire

During Neolithic times, the region was inhabited by Iberian-related peoples, who also lived in other regions of Atlantic Europe at the time. They built religious monuments called megaliths. Dolmens and menhirs still survive in the countryside around the city.

The Indo-European Celts invaded after the first millennium BC and intermarried with the Pre-Indo-European population, giving a rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.

Archaeological findings suggest that some Phoenician influence existed in the place since 1200 BC, leading some historians to the theory that a Phoenician trading post might have occupied the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle hill. The magnificent harbour provided by the estuary of the river Tagus made it an ideal spot for a settlement to provide foodstuffs to Phoenician ships travelling to the tin islands (modern Isles of Scilly) and Cornwall.

The new city might have been named Allis Ubbo, or "safe harbour" in Phoenician, according to one of several theories for the origin of its name.[19]

Besides sailing to the North, the Phoenicians might also have taken advantage of a settlement at the mouth of Iberia's largest river to trade with the inland tribes for valuable metals. Other important local products were salt, salted fish, and the Lusitanian horses that were renowned in antiquity.

Recently, Phoenician remains from the eighth century BC were found beneath the Mediaeval Sé de Lisboa (Lisbon See), or main Cathedral of the modern city. Most modern historians,[20] however, consider the idea of a Phoenician foundation of Lisbon as unreal, and instead believe that Lisbon was an ancient autochthonous settlement (what the Romans called an oppidum) that at most, maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, to account for the presence of Phoenician pottery and other material objects.

Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by the geographer Pomponius Mela, a native of Hispania. It was later known as "Olisippo" to Pliny, and to the Greeks as Olissipo (Ολισσιπο) and "Olissipona" (Ολισσιπόνα).[21] According to tradition the name was derived from Ulysses. In some versions of the myth, the hero founded the city after he left Troy and departed to the Atlantic to escape the Greek coalition.

If all of Odysseus' travels were in the Atlantic as Cailleux[22] argued, then this could mean that Odysseus founded the city coming from the north, before trying to round Cape Malea, (which Cailleux located at Cabo de São Vicente), in a southeasterly direction, to reach his homeland of Ithaca, supposedly present Cadiz. However, the presence of Phoenicians (even if occasional) is thought to predate any Greek presence in the area.

Later on, the Greek name was corrupted in vulgar Latin to Olissipona. Some of the native gods worshiped in Lisbon were Aracus, Carneus, Bandiarbariaicus, and Coniumbricenses.

Roman Empire to the Moorish conquest

The Castelo de São Jorge a fortified citadel reconquered by King Afonso Henriques's forces with assistance from knights from the Second Crusade

During the Punic wars, after the defeat of Hannibal (whose troops included members of the Conii[citation needed]) the Romans decided to deprive Carthage of its most valuable possession, Hispania (the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula). After the defeat of the Carthaginians by Scipio Africanus in Eastern Hispania, the pacification of the West was led by Consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus.

He obtained the alliance of Olissipo, which sent men to fight alongside the Legions against the Celtic tribes of the Northwest. In return, Olissipo was integrated in the Empire under the name of Felicitas Julia, a Municipium Cives Romanorum. It was granted self-rule over a territory going as far away as 50 kilometres (30 miles), exempted from taxes, and its citizens given the privileges of Roman citizenship.

It was in the newly created province of Lusitania, whose capital was Emerita Augusta. The attacks by the Lusitanians during the frequent rebellions over the next couple of centuries weakened the city, and a wall was built.

During the time of Augustus, the Romans built a great theatre; the Cassian Baths underneath the current Rua da Prata; temples to Jupiter, Diana, Cybele, Tethys, and Idae Phrygiae (an uncommon cult from Asia Minor), besides temples to the Emperor; a large necropolis under Praça da Figueira; a large forum and other buildings such as insulae (multi-storied apartment buildings) in the area between the modern Castle Hill and the downtown sector.

Many of these ruins were first unearthed during the middle 18th century, when the recent discovery of Pompeii made Roman archeology fashionable among Europe's upper classes.

Economically strong, Olissipo was known for its garum, a sort of fish sauce highly prized by the elites of the Empire and exported in Amphorae to Rome and other cities. Wine, salt, and its famous fast horses were also exported.

The city came to be very prosperous through suppression of piracy and technological advances, which allowed a boom in the trade with the newly Roman provinces of Britannia (particularly Cornwall) and the Rhine, and through the introduction of Roman culture to the tribes living by the river Tagus in the interior of Hispania.

The city was ruled by an oligarchical council dominated by two families, the Julii and the Cassiae. Petitions are recorded addressed to the Governor of the province in Emerita and to the Empreror Tiberius, such as one requesting help dealing with "sea monsters" allegedly responsible for shipwrecks.

The Roman Sertorius led a large rebellion against the Dictator Sulla early in the Roman period.

Among the majority of Latin speakers lived a large minority of Greek traders and slaves.

The city was connected by a broad road to Western Hispania's two other large cities, Bracara Augusta in the province of Tarraconensis (today's Portuguese Braga), and Emerita Augusta, the capital of Lusitania (now Mérida in Spain).

Olissipo, like most great cities in the Western Empire, was a centre for the dissemination of Christianity. Its first attested Bishop was St. Potamius (c. 356), and there were several martyrs killed by the pagans during the great persecutions; Maxima, Verissimus and Julia[disambiguation needed] are the most significant names.

At the end of the Roman domain, Olissipo was one of the first Christian cities. It suffered invasions from the Sarmatian Alans and the Germanic Vandals, who controlled the region from 409 to 429. The Germanic Suebi, who established a kingdom in Gallaecia (modern Galicia and northern Portugal), with capital in Bracara Augusta (Braga), from 409 to 585, also controlled the region of Lisbon for long periods of time.In 85, the Suebi Kingdom was included in the Germanic Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo, that comprised all of the Iberian Peninsula. Lisbon was then called Ulishbona.

Physical geography

A orthophotograph from a SPOT Satellite, showing the extent of the urbanized area of the city of Lisbon

Lisbon, the capital city of the Portuguese Republic, is located at 38°42′49.75″N 9°8′21.79″W, situated at the mouth of the Tagus: it is the westernmost capital of a mainland European country.

The city occupies an area of 84.8 km2 (33 sq mi), and its city boundaries, unlike those of most major cities, are narrowly defined by historical center. The rest of the urbanized area, known generically as Lisbon, are actually several administratively defined cities, such as Amadora, Queluz, Agualva-Cacém, Odivelas, Loures,Sacavém, Almada, Barreiro, Seixal and Oeiras, and that make up the larger administrative unit, the which are in fact part of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. The western frontier with the Atlantic o

The westernmost part of Lisbon, is occupied by the Parque Florestal de Monsanto (English:  Monsanto Forest Park), an 10 km2 (4 sq mi) urban park, that occupies 10% of the municipality of Lisbon, considered one the largest in Europe.

Climate

Lisbon has a Subtropical-Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa)[32] with mild winters and warm to hot summers. The average annual temperature is 17 °C (63 °F): 21 °C (70 °F) during the day and 13 °C (55 °F) at night. Average annual temperature of the sea is 17.5 °C (63.5 °F). In the coldest month – January – the temperature typically ranges from 8 to 17 °C (46 to 63 °F) during the day, 4 to 12 °C (39 to 54 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is15 °C (59 °F).[33] In the warmest month – August – the temperature typically ranges from 26 to 32 °C (79 to 90 °F) during the day (sometimes there are higher temperatures), around 18 °C (64 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is 20 °C (68 °F).[33] Number of hours of daylight varies from 10 hours in December to 15 hours in June and July,[33] this is one of the most optimal results in Europe. Sunshine hours is about 2,800 per year, from average 4.6 hours of sunshine / day in December to average 11.4 hours of sunshine / day in July. Generally – typical summer's season lasts about 6 months, from May to October, with an average temperature of these six months amounting 25 °C (77 °F) during the day and 16.2 °C (61.2 °F) at night. Three months – November, March and April – are transitional, at times the temperature exceeds 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of these three months amounting 18.5 °C (65 °F) during the day and 11.2 °C (52.2 °F) at night. December, January and February are the coldest months, with an average temperature of these three months amounting 15.2 °C (59.4 °F) during the day and 8.9 °C (48.0 °F) at night. Among all metropolises in Europe continent, Lisbon has the warmest winters. Also, are here the most mildest nights in Europe: one of the warmest in the winter - from average 8 °C (46 °F) in the coldest month and comfortable in the summer - to average 18 °C (64 °F) in the warmest month. Rain occurs mainly in winters, the summers being generally dry.


publicado por José A. Carvalho às 14:59
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